Zero tailpipe emission is on a fast track for urban public transport.
The auto industry is gearing up to meet the accelerated emission compliance challenges posed by the government. Even the refineries have to deliver BS-VI compliant fuel to
India’s decision to leapfrog to BS-VI emission norms by 2020 has spurred the development of new generation fuel and exhaust management systems, also termed as “Clean Air Systems”. However, the success or failure of the proposed compliance norms will also largely depend on availability of emission-compliant fuel to be delivered by Indian refineries. As such, it is a national challenge and all stakeholders are gearing up their
respective acts to deliver.
With major cities in India struggling with air quality issues, the Indian government in February 2016 decided to leapfrog the Bharat Stage (BS) V Emission Standards and directly move to the more stringent BS-VI norms by April 2020, four years ahead of the earlier schedule. Globally, emission standards have been implemented in a phased manner with adequate time gap (typically 45 years) between two levels. The key challenge for OEMs will be in adapting the available solutions to Indian market conditions in a relatively short time-frame, while making them cost-effective.
Further, given the past experience with respect to delays in availability of BS-IV compliant fuel, the availability of even more cleaner fuel by 2020 on a nationwide basis may also become a bottleneck. Our interaction with industry participants suggests that investments by OEMs are unlikely to be sizeable to meet BS-VI norms; however, OEMs with higher dependence on diesel models may accelerate their focus on the petrol segment, while hybrids and other clean technologies would take centre-stage in their R&D plans. Overall, the proposed emission standards will push vehicle prices upwards, with the diesel segment likely to witness sizeable cost increase due to introduction of additional components. This would make diesel Passenger Vehicles (PVs) costlier (vis à-vis petrol variants) and consequently may deter demand
for diesel PVs.
The Government of India has recently released the proposed draft for implementation of revised emission norms, inviting all the stakeholders to present their comments, point of views and suggestions. Subsequently, the final draft will be placed in Parliament for debate and passing of a formal.
SALIENT FEATURES OF PROPOSED BS-VI NORMS
The proposed BS-VI norms would align India to European regulations by 2020 in all segments except three-wheelers. In comparison to existing emission standards, the proposed BS-VI norms incorporate substantial tightening of Nitrogen Oxide (NOx) and Particulate Matter (PM) and also implement a limit on Particle Number (PN). Further, the emission standards are incrementally far more stringent for diesel vehicles as compared to petrol variants.
The other noteworthy aspect of the BS-VI standard is the shift towards real-world driving cycles for evaluation of emission levels in light duty vehicles (which will cover PVs and SCVs) and World Harmonised Steady Cycle (WHSC) & World Harmonised Transient Cycle (WTSC) for heavy-duty vehicles (primarily trucks & buses). These testing cycles are more representative of real-world driving conditions and are able to better capture driving modes when emission levels
• In addition, the proposed BS-VI norms also incorporate enhanced On-Board Diagnostics (OBD) requirements for all vehicle segments. Interestingly, the two- and three-wheelers will also be required to implement OBD for the first time ever. More importantly, the emission norms for two-wheelers (i.e., CO, HC & NOx) will become equivalent to proposed BS-VI norms for petrol-driven PVs, thereby implying that BS-VI two-wheelers will be as clean as petrol PVs.
• As mentioned earlier, the proposed emission norms incrementally are far more stringent for diesel vehicles when compared to their petrol variants. For instance, the proposed norms mandate a reduction of 68 per cent and 82 per cent in NOx and PM levels in diesel vehicles vis-à-vis BS-IV norms. In comparison, the NOx levels in petrol vehicles are required to drop by 25 per cent vis-à-vis the current
T Venkataraman, Senior Vice President, Global Buses, Ashok Leyland Limited informs that “The company has forayed into the space of electric buses: Circuit has found early adaptors in many city transport corporations and is fast gaining traction in this market.”
Tata Motors, the country’s largest truck and bus manufacturer, announced readiness of SCR (Selective Catalytic Reduction) and EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) technologies for BS-IV compliant engines, powering its range of commercial vehicles. EGR technology adopted by Tata Motors in 2010 will continue to power small-to-medium category of commercial vehicles with engine power requirements up to 180HP. EGR also helps to reduce NOx emissions from the engine. Additionally, Tata Motors has adopted the globally proven SCR technology since 2014 for its medium and heavy-duty commercial vehicles ranging from 130HP to 400HP. Tata Cummins Ltd, a joint venture between Tata Motors and US-based Cummins Inc. has developed these engines. SCR technology allows engines to operate at a more optimal combustion temperature providing better power, fuel efficiency and lower NOx and particulate matter generation. While EGR is a relatively low cost, simple, and ‘easy to integrate’ technology, SCR can be scaled up further to meet the stringent BS-VI emission standards. Tata Motors has perfected both SCR and EGR technologies on a wide range of TML vehicles that have been sold to customers within India as well as abroad.
Ravindra Pisharody, Executive Director, Commercial Vehicles, Tata Motors said, “Tata Motors has led technology changes in the Indian commercial vehicle industry for the last six decades. We have always endeavoured to develop products and introduce future technologies, ahead of regulations and have played a proactive role in regulation compliance. Tata Motors continues to be at the forefront of meeting emission regulation, driven by our concern for the environment and impact on health. Introduction and adoption of EGR and SCR technology in 2010 and 2014 respectively reiterates our capabilities with regard to introducing future technologies. Because we strongly believe in offering the best-suited technology for various applications, we will offer both SCR and EGR technologies on BS-IV solutions. This will not only meet regulatory requirements for emission norms but also optimise the total cost of ownership, ultimately benefitting our customers.”
Elaborating, Pisharody said, “Offering precise technology for the right duty cycle and application will be critical for the success and sustainable business operations of the commercial vehicle industry. At the onset of BS-IV emission norms in India and provident on the ensuing BS-VI emission norms from April 2020, we are confident that our selection of emission control technologies across the commercial vehicle range is holistic and the most ideal one, given that it takes into consideration critical aspects such as performance, reliability, commercial affordability, environmental sustainability and future readiness.”
Apart from being the market leader in CVs in India, Tata Motors has been exporting many of its products to countries like Russia, Australia, Europe and Latin America where the emission regulations have been ahead of India and many of Tata Motors’ products have been meeting Euro IV and Euro V regulations.
TATA CUMMINS BSIV ENGINES
“Cummins’ BSIV engines will cater across ranges from 130 HP to 400 HP powering TATA Motors’ vehicle platforms from 16T truck to 49T Tractor Trailers,” Pisharody said.
• ISB5.9 BSIV EGR: 160 to 180 HP
• ISB5.9 BSIV SCR: 130 to 230 HP
• ISB6.7 BSIV SCR: 230 to 300 HP
• ISL8.9 BSIV SCR: 400 HP
Built on Cummins’ legendary B5.9 BSIII mechanical engine, the BSIV compliant ISB5.9 electronic engine will be available in both SCR and EGR technologies. The engine will integrate Cummins’ new generation fuel system and electronic controls, while retaining the robustness and reliability of the legendary B5.9 platform. Cummins and Tata Motors continuously strive to offer market-leading products to deliver best value to end users. An example of that is the B5.9 BS-III Cummins engine, which was the first mechanical engine in the world complying with BS-III level emission norms. This was made possible because of the continuous connect with customers to deliver a technology most suited for the Indian market. With BSIV compliant product introduction, Tata Cummins has expanded their customer connect across the globe.
MERCEDES-BENZ E 220 D
Subsequent to the success of the new long wheelbase E-Class in India, one of the only two markets in which the car was launched; the country’s largest luxury car manufacturer Mercedes-Benz, launched the all new E-Class 220 d in India. The launch of the all new E 220 d variant of the ‘World Luxury Car of the Year’ also marks the introduction of Mercedes-Benz’s revolutionary OM 654 diesel engine in the Indian market. The new four-cylinder diesel engine (OM 654) underlines the debut of a ground-breaking family of engines from Mercedes-Benz with a host of technological, safety and comfort features. The E 220 d was rolled-out of Mercedes-Benz India’s production facility in Chakan, Pune by Roland Folger, Managing Director & CEO, Mercedes-Benz India and Piyush Arora, Executive Director, Mercedes-Benz India. Folger said, “The World Luxury Car of the Year has witnessed an overwhelming customer demand since its launch. With E 220 d, we are now extending the E-Class product portfolio even further and making it highly versatile. The launch of the new E 220 d also marks the India debut of Mercedes-Benz’s globally acclaimed, OM 654 diesel engine. The new E 220 d’s diesel mill promises to be more efficient, powerful, lighter and compact. With an unparalleled luxury quotient, best in class passenger comfort, highly agile driving dynamics and the lowest total cost of ownership; we have launched another winning product with the new E 220 d. We are very confident that the E 220 d will continue to remain the most sought after luxury business saloon and an important pillar of our product offensive in India. The roll-out of the E 220 d is a significant milestone for Mercedes-Benz India; as it also marks the India debut of the ground breaking OM 654 series of Mercedes-Benz’s new generation diesel engines.”
UNIQUE EQUIPMENT FOR THE NEW ENGINE ASSEMBLY:
Adding yet another first to its achievement, electronic torqueing is now introduced for the first time in the engine assembly for the E 220 d. Some unique equipment for the all new E 220 d comprises of:
• Oil spray nozzle position checking through optical camera
• Bearing assembly
• Liquid sealant application system
• Intercooler assembly
• Turbocharger sub-assembly fixture
KEY ENGINE HIGHLIGHTS:
• Flat steel pistons with innovative Mercedes-Benz stepped combustion bowls and long connecting rods
• All exhaust treatment technologies configured directly on the engine
• Extensive measures for friction reduction, such as the NANOSLIDE coating of the cylinder walls
• Fourth-generation common
• Offset of the crank assembly
• Reduced displacement
• Systematic lightweight design
• An unusual combination of aluminium engine block and steel pistons.
CHALLENGES TO TECHNOLOGY UPGRADATIONS
With proposed BS-VI emission standards being incrementally more stringent for diesel vehicles vis-à-vis petrol vehicles, the technology for the former is likely to undergo significant upgradation, both within the engine as well as the exhaust system. For instance, the sharp reduction in NOx levels can be achieved through introduction of new technologies such as Lean NOx Trap (LNT) (for diesel PVs) and SCR (for M&HCVs). In addition, Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) would emerge as the most common solution to control PM emissions from diesel PVs, MCVs and HCVs.
For diesel passenger cars: Main changes in fuel injection system include Exhaust–LNT for controlling NOx levels and Exhaust–DPF for controlling PM levels. Unlike diesel vehicles, the adherence to BS-VI norms for petrol vehicles can be achieved through improvement in a) air-fuel management (within the engine) and b) exhaust gas recirculation (within the exhaust system).
For two-wheelers: It would entail that for Combustion –Electronic Fuel Injection (EFI); Exhaust–Three Way Catalytic Converter, Lean NOx trap (LNT); for Diesel additional Diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC), will be required. In reference to hybrid/electric assist vehicles, it is noteworthy that they experience almost no delay in power from a stop, due to the instant availability of power from the traction battery to the electric motor(s). Gasoline/micro hybrids on the other hand, generally experience slight delays (albeit fractions of a second). Unlike all developed countries, ‘start-stop’ traffic conditions prevail in all Indian metro cities (and even Tier-II & III ones) are yet another challenge for the auto industry.
Many people think that long-term use may induce additional wear due to lack of oil lubrication, and this is true. For the crankshaft bearing half shells and the big end bearings, this can translate into frequent high-speed rotary movement before a hydrodynamic film is established. During this phase of boundary lubrication, metal-to-metal contact can occur between the crankshaft surface and the bearing’s sliding surface. This was not an issue while the number of engine restarts totalled at what was generally understood to be a normal magnitude. However, in a vehicle with start-stop system, this effect can necessitate new technological solutions to avoid premature bearing wear, depending on the driving cycle. Consequently, future engines for start-stop applications need to be designed for 250,000 to 300,000 starts. Traditional bearing shells with aluminum or copper lining show severe wear after only 100,000 cycles. In a start-stop system, the short stop times keep the engine and oil warm, retaining lubrication. Some implementations do not use a starter motor, eliminating concerns of starter motor wear. Further, start-stop systems are heavily reliant on the battery. Testing indicates that AGM batteries diminish in their ability to support start-stop functionality over time.
For some industry stakeholders, it is good news, because they were already supplying products in line with Euro VI standards for their overseas markets. Others need to accelerate and ramp up their respective technologies to meet the projected market demand of such components and vehicles within a short span of less than four years.
Going beyond emissions, the recent crash tests conducted by GNCAP showed many cars to be having zero safety ratings. Currently, NCAP is allowing voluntary crash tests to be conducted under their specifications and permitting the manufacturers to advertise the results. Come 2019, crash tests will become mandatory for all vehicles. That’s one more worrisome aspect automakers have to work on.
It would be appropriate to mention that there is always a cost attributed to new technology. In this case, on one side, the vehicles have to be made emission compliant through introduction of various systems described earlier. On the other hand, vehicles have to retain or improve their fuel economy in real time measurable, certifiable and transparent terms. Otherwise the Damocles’ sword of Dieselgate, Suzuki, Mitsubishi and other scandals hangs
on their heads.
has forayed in to the space of electric bus: Circuit which has found early adaptors in many city transport corporations and fast gaining traction in this market.”
– T Venkataraman,
Senior Vice President,
Ashok Leyland Limited
Features of Ashok Leyland Circuit
• AC motor propulsion.
• Driveline based powertrain technology
• Power electronic motor control
• Clutch less driving
• Regenerative braking
• Electric power steering
• Li-ion battery pack
• Low battery power alert
• On board battery charger
• Integrated fire detection and suppression system
• Full vehicle diagnostics
• Advanced telematics
“Tata Motors continues to be at the forefront of meeting emission regulation, driven by our concern on environment and health impact.”
– Ravindra Pisharody,
Executive Director Commercial Vehicles,
Key Engine highlights:
• All exhaust treatment technologies configured directly on the engine
• Extensive measures for friction reduction, such as the NANOSLIDE ® coating of the cylinder walls
• Fourth-generation common rail injection
• Unusual combination: aluminium engine block and steel pistons.
“The roll-out of the E 220 d marks the India debut of the ground breaking OM 654 series of Mercedes-Benz’s new generation diesel engines.”
– Roland Folger,
Managing Director & CEO,
About SCR and EGR
Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is a process that simply adds a Diesel Exhaust Fluid (DEF) into the exhaust gas stream and filters it through a catalyst. The DEF vaporises and decomposes to form ammonia (NH3), which in conjunction with the SCR catalyst reacts with NOx (Nitrogen oxides) to convert the pollutant into nitrogen (N2) and water (H2O) which are released into the air. SCR technology uses less fuel since the engine is tuned to cut NOx and can instead be set up for performance and economy. In addition, fewer active & regenerations of diesel particulate filters are needed to burn off soot, which in turn uses less fuel. SCR is a globally proven technology which almost every diesel engine manufacturer has adopted. All the major commercial vehicle OEMs across the world have chosen SCR to comply with new and upcoming emission standards.
Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) is a Nitrogen Oxides (NOx) emissions reduction technique within the engine that re-circulates a portion of an engines exhaust gas back to the engine cylinders after cooling, depriving it of certain amount of oxygen, leading to lower temperature burn. EGR uses enhanced electronic controls, even-higher- pressure fuel injection, multiple coolers, and optimised turbocharging. This reduces NOx emissions. However, EGR technology has limited potential in terms of being up scaled. The new technologies will help reduce emissions of NOx. Additionally, compliance to BSIV emission norms (with OBDII) will require accurate control on the engine combustion. This can only be achieved with electronic engines and hence the Indian M&HCV market will experience a significant transition from mechanical to electronic engines.