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Automotive Product Finder Magazine | Getting closer to the reality of low-emission mobility
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Lightweighting of cars is something that OEMs have put on top of their checklist. Automakers have manufactured vehicles which are more efficient, without sacrificing power and performance, with the help of a dimension of technological innovations. Pankaj Khare says there are several such new technologies available but it all begins with lightweight materials.
The environmental impact caused by transportation has come under the spotlight in recent years resulting into buzz around embedding sustainable mobility solutions. As the necessity to reduce carbon emission is the need of the hour, manufacturers are reshaping their businesses models, adopting eco friendly practices and striving to gain consumer approval. In the current scenario, manufacturers that can provide vehicles at an affordable price, greater performance, better comfort and style plus superior fuel economy are gaining an edge over the competition.
In the past decade, automakers have done an impressive job of making cars that are more efficient than ever, without sacrificing power and performance. Technological innovations have allowed automakers to pump up horsepower and fuel economy at the same time. Those innovations include the increased use of lightweight materials, tyres with lower resistance, fuel efficient engines, additives to stabilise bio-diesel and penetration of hybrid and connected vehicles. Literally there are hundreds of new technologies available in the market which can improve fuel efficiency, but it all begins with lightweight materials.
Weight reduction with lightweight materials
Advance lightweight materials are widely used for boosting the fuel economy of modern automobiles while maintaining safety and performance. Lighter objects such as high performing plastic are highly energy efficient as they consume less power and fuel during the acceleration process compared to the heavier objects. Plastic makes an astonishing 50 per cent of today’s cars, resulting into less strain on engine and lower tailpipe emissions. The lightweight plastic is created through a process that combines plastic with metal without compromising on its stability properties. The combination offers weight reduction up to 20 per cent with higher stiffness and strength. The solutions are mainly applied to the car body, chassis, drive-train, interior and electronics. For instance, the material can be used in thermo-plastic engine oil pans, CNG gas tank liners, cross car beams, front-end structures, brake pedals, steering rods, airbag housings, battery system carriers, air bags, car body inserts and structural body frames. Compared to traditional steel material, hybrid plastic metal technology is cost efficient and it is already used by well known automakers in today’s date.
Taking a step further in the development of the hybrid technology, manufacturers have innovated ‘Hollow Profile Hybrid Technology’, which uses hollow metal profiles with round or square cross-sections instead of sheet metal. Due to the dimensional stability, hollow profiles enable hybrid parts with significantly higher torsional stiffness and strength. There is an enormous potential for structural components such as cross car beams, which were not resilient enough using conventional hybrid technology.
Apart from the four wheeler segment, the two wheeler vehicle segment is also utilising lightweight materials to achieve better fuel efficiency. Two wheeler manufacturers are also converting many metal parts like grab handle, foot rest, air intake manifold, fenders, cylinder head cover etc., to plastics.
USE of fuel efficient tyres
In addition to hybrid plastic metal technology, another emerging trend in achieving fuel efficiency is utilisation of tyres with better fuel efficiency. For decades, tyre designers have sought to reduce rolling resistance as a way to improve fuel economy. However, there is a trade off. If the rolling resistance of a tyre is reduced, it will also reduce its ability to grip a wet road. Better rolling resistance has also typically translated to a tyre with lower durability. But things are changing today, thanks to materials science, which has facilitated the emergence of fuel efficient tyres. Additives such as Nanoprene made for tyre treads lower rolling resistance without sacrificing wet grip or durability. Also, new and improved rubber materials such as polybutadiene rubber for tyre manufacturers that substantially reduce a tyre’s rolling resistance, which is the friction it encounters as it grips the road. As a consequence, fuel consumption is lower, which translates to less emission of carbon dioxide. It is not only about utilisation of green tyres that contributes towards sustainable development, it is also about utilising green production methods while creating these tyres. LANXESS has already facilitated cleaner production of tyres by removing silicone from washable and permanent release agents and given solutions for tyre production.
Penetration of hybrid vehicles
Growing influence of electric, shared and autonomous mobility will reshape the future of the automotive industry. Stakeholders, cities, automakers, suppliers, fleet owners, and more will see profound benefits, opportunities and challenges as the technology will evolve in the coming years. Autonomous vehicles will revolutionise the urban landscape by allowing machines to take over the driving. Electric cars will soon contribute towards reducing the carbon emission and decarbonising the transport sector. Shared use of mobility services will further offer tailored mobility services which can possibly replace the need for privately owned modes of transport. Key advancements in electric and hybrid vehicles will certainly include improved and mature battery technology to solve the current limitation in operating ranges. Also, infrastructure and urban planning will play its role, for example, an adequate station network for fast charging of batteries and for supply of alternative fuels for hybrid vehicles, like using natural gas, will be developed.
Emergence of smart technologies
The future of the automotive industry will witness wider adoption of connected technologies allowing users to get valuable insights about their vehicle. For instance, now the consumer will be able to closely understand the fuel consumption patterns of the vehicle at one touch and take appropriate actions to improve the efficiency. The wave of digital disruptive technology also facilitates vehicle to vehicle communication that essentially can decrease traffic, vehicle accidents and fatalities. The concept of smart technologies is evolving beyond integration of digital equipments and emphasizing on utilisation of cleaner fuels like solar energy, biodiesel and hydrogen gas. Building an eco friendly infrastructure that has solar roads, alternate charging and refuelling station, green space is essential to make our cities sustainable in the long run.
Biodiesel is an alternative fuel similar to conventional or ‘fossil’ diesel created to reduce dependency on traditional fuel options and decreasing emission. This can be described as a carbon neutral fuel which produces no net output of carbon in the form of carbon dioxide after the fuel is combusted. The issue associated with this fuel alternative is its storage as biodiesel is vulnerable to environmental factors such as air, moisture, light etc. As we progress, now there are ways to improve the storing process of diesel with the help of additives. If the additives are rightly used, it can increase the resistance of biodiesel to oxidation process and increase the shelf life. The bio diesel stabilisers in coming years will play a pivotal role in mainstreaming the biodiesel usage.
In India, the passenger car segment is rapidly growing which will further create immense opportunity for use of technologies such as plastic, fuel efficient tyres, alternative fuel options, EV and digital solutions.The automotive industry ahead will witness influx of more autonomous vehicles and digital technologies, where lightweight materials will be a key factor in manufacturing of these new age transportation solutions. There always will be a need for space and weight reduction to incorporate latest technologies while maintaining quality and cost efficiency making it a prerequisite for manufacturers to use lightweight materials. Amidst widespread change in vehicle systems and architecture, get ready for the revolution in the automotive industry. The new age vehicle ecosystem is closer than we imagine.
Pankaj Khare holds a degree of management from Narsee Monjee Institute of Management Studies. He began his career as Sales Manager (Central & West India) at DSM Engineering Plastics in India in 2009. As sales manager, he managed sales quantum, revenue, contribution margin and receivables for the region, developed strategic plans for the region and execution of the same. Since 2012, Khare holds responsibilities as head of the sales & marketing division for the High Performance Materials Business unit of LANXESS India.
Hybrid And Connected Vehicles. Automobiles
Hybrid Plastic Metal Technology
Biodiesel And Hydrogen Gas
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